The condition between conception (fertilization of an egg by a sperm) and birth, during which the fertilized egg develops in the uterus. In humans, pregnancy lasts about 288 days. Pregnancy occurs when a sperm fertilizes an egg after it's released from the ovary during ovulation. The fertilized egg then travels down into the uterus, where implantation occurs. A successful implantation results in pregnancy. Many factors can affect a pregnancy.

Diet and nutritional requirements in pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman's dietary needs undergo significant changes to support the growth and development of the baby. Each trimester presents specific nutritional requirements that should be met for optimal health. In the first trimester, emphasis is placed on consuming a balanced diet and incorporating non-acidic food items. Folic acid supplements are recommended to prevent birth defects. In the second trimester, the focus shifts to maintaining a non-acidic diet while increasing calcium, protein, iron, iodine, and vitamin D intake. The third trimester necessitates additional protein and calcium intake to support the baby's growth. Throughout pregnancy, it is important to follow dietary guidelines, avoid certain foods like papaya and high-mercury fish, and monitor sugar levels. Consulting healthcare professionals and adhering to these guidelines can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and promote the well-being of both the mother and the baby.

1. First Trimester:

  • Additional calories: An extra 200 calories are recommended to support the early stages of pregnancy when the baby's organs and systems begin to form.
  • Folic acid supplements: Consuming 400-600 IU of folic acid helps prevent neural tube defects and promotes healthy brain and spinal cord development in the baby.
  • Basic diet and non-acidic items: During the first trimester, basic foods that are gentle on the stomach are recommended, avoiding spicy or acidic foods that may exacerbate morning sickness.
  • Vitamin A supplements: Excessive intake of vitamin A supplements should be avoided, as high levels can be harmful to the baby's mental development. A daily intake of about 10,000 IU is considered safe.
  • B-6 rich foods: Incorporating foods rich in vitamin B-6 can help alleviate morning sickness symptoms.
  • Meditation and roasted chickpeas: These practices can help manage morning sickness by promoting relaxation and providing a nutritious snack option.

2. Second Trimester:

  • Non-acidic and improved diet: Continuing with a non-acidic diet, the second trimester focuses on enhancing the nutritional quality of meals to support the baby's growth.
  • Additional calories: An extra 300-400 calories are needed to accommodate the increasing energy demands of both the mother and the developing baby.
  • Calcium and protein: Calcium requirements double during this trimester to support the baby's bone and teeth development. Protein intake also needs to be increased to provide building blocks for the baby's tissues and organs.
  • B-6 intake: Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin B-6 is important for overall health and development.
  • Iron, iodine, and vitamin D: Iron is necessary to prevent anemia, iodine supports the baby's thyroid function, and vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium and supports bone development.

3. Third Trimester:

  • Additional calories: As the baby's growth accelerates, an extra 600 calories are needed to support their development and provide energy for the mother.
  • Protein: Doubling the protein intake from normal requirements ensures the baby's growing tissues are adequately nourished.
  • Calcium: Intake should range from 1000-2600mg to support the baby's bone development and prevent calcium depletion from the mother's body.
  • Sugar level monitoring: Regular monitoring and management of blood sugar levels are essential, especially for those at risk of gestational diabetes.


  • Eggs: Cooking eggs fully helps eliminate the risk of bacterial infections such as salmonella.
  • Fish: River and sea fish with high mercury content, like shark or swordfish, should be avoided due to potential harm to the baby's developing nervous system. Safe fish options can be consumed in moderation.
  • Papaya: Certain varieties of papaya contain enzymes called bromelain hormones, which may lead to contractions and affect the baby's muscle mass. Avoiding papaya during pregnancy is recommended.
  • Mozzarella cheese and processed foods: These items may carry a higher risk of bacterial contamination, so it's best to avoid them or ensure they are properly cooked.
  • Vomiting: Consuming juices may aggravate vomiting, while milk with cardamom or oral rehydration solution (ORS) can provide relief and prevent dehydration.
  • Cinnamon: Cinnamon has been associated with potential miscarriage risk and is not recommended during pregnancy.
  • Vegetables and meat: Thoroughly cooking vegetables and meat helps eliminate any harmful bacteria that may be present.
  • Gestational diabetes: The glucose tolerance test (GTT) is conducted between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes, a condition that affects blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
  • Stomach problems: Reduced progesterone levels can lead to stomach problems, including heartburn and acid reflux, as the stomach is pushed upward due to the growing uterus.
  • Pineapple: Limited consumption of pineapple is advised as it contains bromelain, an enzyme that may cause uterine contractions.
  • Fresh dates: Eating fresh dates during the last few weeks of pregnancy has been associated with improved cervical ripening and may assist in a smoother delivery.
  • Desi ghee: Desi ghee, a form of clarified butter, is recommended in the last trimester for its potential benefits in lubricating the birth canal and promoting easier delivery.
  • Blood group compatibility: Couples with the same blood group may have a higher risk of miscarriage due to potential compatibility issues.
  • Diet's influence: Diet plays a significant role in the development of the fetus, contributing around 70% to their overall well-being, while the remaining 30% is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.



Lactation, the process of producing and providing breast milk to nourish an infant, is a remarkable journey that brings numerous benefits to both the mother and the child. It is a natural and vital aspect of motherhood, promoting optimal growth and development in the early stages of a baby's life. Let's explore the wonders of lactation, its effects on both mother and child, and the essential aspects of a lactation-supportive diet.

The Benefits of Lactation:

Breast milk is uniquely tailored to meet the nutritional needs of infants, providing them with essential nutrients and protective antibodies. It serves as the primary source of nourishment during the first months of life, offering benefits such as:

  • Optimal Nutrition: Breast milk contains the perfect balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, along with vitamins, minerals, and enzymes, meeting the nutritional requirements for healthy growth and development.
  • Immune Protection: The antibodies present in breast milk enhance the baby's immune system, providing protection against infections, allergies, and illnesses.
  • Digestive Health: Breast milk is easily digested, reducing the risk of gastrointestinal issues like constipation and diarrhoea.
  • Cognitive Development: Studies suggest that breast milk may contribute to improved cognitive development and intelligence in children.

Lactation and Maternal Health:

Lactation not only benefits the child but also has positive effects on the mother's health. It aids in postpartum recovery and offers the following advantages:

  • Bonding and Emotional Well-being: The act of breastfeeding promotes bonding between mother and baby, releasing oxytocin, a hormone that promotes relaxation and emotional well-being.
  • Uterine Contraction: Breastfeeding stimulates uterine contractions, helping the uterus return to its pre-pregnancy size and reducing postpartum bleeding.
  • Weight Loss: Lactation can assist in postpartum weight loss by utilizing stored fat for milk production.
  • Reduced Risk of Certain Diseases: Breastfeeding has been associated with a lower risk of breast and ovarian cancers, as well as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in mothers.

Dietary Considerations for Lactating Mothers:

Maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is crucial during lactation. Adequate calorie intake and specific nutrients are essential for optimal milk production and the mother's well-being. Consider the following guidelines:

  • Additional Calories: Lactating mothers require an extra 450-550 calories per day to meet the energy demands of milk production.
  • Calcium Requirements: Calcium needs increase during lactation, with a recommended intake of 2600mg daily. Good sources include dairy products, leafy greens, and calcium-fortified foods.
  • Allergies and Avoidance: If the mother has known allergies, it is advisable to avoid allergenic foods that may trigger a reaction in the baby through breast milk.
  • Constipation and Antibiotics: Antibiotics may disrupt the natural balance of gut bacteria, potentially leading to constipation. Staying hydrated and consuming fibres-rich foods can help alleviate this issue.
  • Milk Supply and Pain: In some cases, certain factors like stress, dehydration, or incorrect latch may temporarily reduce milk production or cause discomfort. Seeking support from a lactation consultant and ensuring proper hydration and nutrition can help maintain milk supply and alleviate pain.
  • Gas-Producing Foods: Some foods like beans, cabbage, and onions may contribute to gas in the baby. Observing the baby's reactions can help identify and avoid such foods.
  • Fruit Consumption: Fruits are a valuable addition to a lactating mother's diet, providing essential vitamins, minerals, and fibres. However, excessive fruit consumption should be balanced with other food groups.
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